Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Making a 200 watt Compact PWM Inverter Circuit - Using Tiny Ferrite Transformer

This circuit was requested by a few of the dedicated followers of this blog, namely Mr. Rashid, Mr, Sandeep and also by a few more readers. Initially I could not figure out the concept behind these compact inverters which completely eliminated the bulky iron core transformers. However after some thinking it seems I have succeeded in discovering the very simple principle associated with the functioning of such inverters.

Lately the Chinese compact type inverters have become pretty famous just because of their compact and sleek sizes which make them outstandingly light weight and yet hugely efficient with their power output specs.

Initially I thought the concept to be unfeasible, because according to me the use of tiny ferrite transformers for low frequency inverter application appeared highly impossible.

Inverters for domestic use requires 50/60 Hz and for implementing ferrite transformer we would require very high frequencies, so the idea looked highly complicated.

However after some thinking I was amazed and happy to discover a simple idea for implementing the design. Its all about converting the battery voltage to 220 or 120 mains voltage at very high frequency, and switching the output to 50/60 HZ using an push-pull mosfet stage.

Looking at the figure we can simply witness and figure out the whole idea. Here the battery voltage is first converted to high frequency PWM pulses. These pulses are dumped into a step up ferrite transformer having the required appropriate rating. The pulses are applied using a mosfet so that the battery current can be utilized optimally.

The ferrite transformer steps up the voltage to 220V at it output. However since this voltage has a frequency of around 60 to 100kHz, cannot be directly used for operating the domestic appliances and therefore needs further processing.

In the next step this voltage is rectified, filtered and converted to 220V DC. This high voltage DC is finally switched to 50 Hz frequency so that it may be used for operating the household appliances.

Kindly note that though the circuit has been exclusively designed by me, it hasn't been tested practically, make it at your own risk and on;y if you have sufficient confidence over the given explanations.

Parts List for 12V DC to 220V AC compact ferrite core inverter circuit.

R3---R6 = 470 Ohms
R9, R10 = 10K,
R1,R2,C1,C2 = calculate to generate 100kHz freq.
R7,R8 = 27K
C3, C4 = 0.47uF
T1----T4 = BC547,
T5 = any 30V 20Amp N-channel mosfet,
T6, T7 = any, 400V, 3 amp mosfet.
Diodes = fast recovery, high speed type.
TR1 = primary, 13V, 10amp, secondary = 250-0-250, 3amp. E-core ferrite transformer....ask an expert winder and transformer designer for help.

An improved version of the above design is shown below. The output stage here is optimized for better response and more power.



66 comments:

  1. hi mr. swagatam can this inverter be modified?
    great job on cracking this secret, once i opened one of these light weight modified inverter and tried to understand its function so it might be similar configuration as this one. congrats!! and

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you very much Roger, I have tried to explain the concept, now it's up to the readers how they may like to modify the results as per their own preferences...

      Delete
    2. can a 555 timer be integrated to this inverter?

      Regards.

      Delete
    3. Yes definitely can be used, in fact any IC which can produce pulses can be used here.

      Delete
    4. hi mr. swagatam if wanted to modify the output power. what changes will it require? does it imply 1/10th on the transformer
      area?

      Regards..

      Delete
    5. Hi Roger,

      I am not sure about the transformer dimensions or winding data, so cannot say much about the required modifications..

      Delete
  2. hello sir...
    its rally a very nice one..i saw may inverter circuits in ur blog. i could find changes in implementing the new one from the old interver circuit in ur blog. sir, i want to make an inverter. what are the considerations we need to take??! as per my knowledge i think we should first make a plan about the things we need to use wen the power is lost (i.e., light, fans, chargers etc..) and the power consumed by them. so according to the charging capacity of inverter these things can b used.. right sir??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks siree,
      Yes you are very much correct....planning-out before making any project is very important, inverters especially require strict planning before configuring....rightly said.

      Regards.

      Delete
  3. Hello Sir,

    Great work by you, just wounder full. You are really an electronic scientist.

    Thank you so much. Please try to add one which was practically tested.

    Thanks again.
    Best Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The pleasure is all mine...yes when i get time i would surely like to make this project and test the results....

      Delete
  4. hello sir..
    if we need to make an inverter for 3fans and lights then what wil the specifiacations sir??
    can we make inverter for running a.c ?? is it tooo difficult???
    what is the idea and concepts used in making inverter for our specifications?? plz tell me sir

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It will require a perfectly optimized transformer, because transformer is the heart of an inverter, rest all can be calculated by standard means....if transformer is properly designed then rest of the things won't be much difficult.

      Delete
  5. hello sir,
    if we need to 2 fans , two lights and an ac then what wil the specifications!!??? and what considerations we need to take sir!!!???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You will have to first calculate the total wattage of the equipment and select the transformer with ratings at least 25% more than the calculated loads wattage.

      Delete
  6. On the output does both fets connect source. Or N chanel source with P channel drain.

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The drains are joined together, the sources are connected to the positive and the negative of the bridge respectively for T6 and T7..

      Delete
    2. No, one is N and the other is P-channel....

      Delete
  7. hi mr. swagatam to get 60Hz what resistor do i need to change?

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Mr.Roger,

      Make R7, R8 = 22K and C3,C4 = 0.47uF

      Delete
  8. Hi. Mr swagatam can you post how calculate the rc to change the frequency. Im having trouble figuring out the correct formula for your disign.
    Thanks for your time...

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Mr.Roger,

      You can use the following formula for finding the frequency or RC:

      f=1/1.38RC, where R and C are the values of the transistor base resistor and capacitor.
      f is in Hz, R in Ohms and C in Farads.

      Delete
  9. hi sir, what is the cycle duty on the 50Hz/60Hz AMV bottom circuit?

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am unable to do any post here your site is not allowing

      Delete
    2. how can I enter a schematic of a Grid Tie Inverter that I want to ask you about? I found this here http://www.neo-aerodynamic.com/GridTieInverter.html
      Please advise if it will work in India

      Delete
    3. In India the referred circuit will not work, because it is for 110V supplies only.

      You can mail your diagram to hitman2008@live.in

      Delete
    4. Comments need moderation before getting published, so won't appear immediately after posting.....

      Delete
  10. hii swagatam this is kurush karanjia here . This circuit can be very useful for me in designing the type of PCU for solar application i am trying to design. I will be very thankful if you help me to design this circuit for 1kw and above

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, Khurush,

      Again this circuit is also based on theoretical assumptions, it has not has been tested practically.
      i think if the transformer is wound correctly, this circuit might start working instantly.

      The concept needs to be tested and applied practically over a smaller design first.

      Delete
  11. i am gonna try to make this circuit so any suggestions for diodes and R1 R2 C1 C2 or how to calculate them.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You can use the following formula for finding the frequency or RC values:

      f=1/1.38RC, where R and C are the values of the transistor base resistor and capacitor.

      f is in Hz, R in Ohms and C in FARADS.

      Delete
  12. can a 0.45uf and 16ohm work.??
    and any suggestions for diode
    ??

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 16 Ohms is too low, it will damage the transistors, make the cap value lower and make the resistor value higher.

      diodes can be 6A4 type.

      Delete
  13. should the resistance be in range of few 100-ohms or kilo-ohms

    ReplyDelete
  14. the frequency will be around 7MHz so instead can we use 1k6 and 4.5nf..this will round up the freq to around 100kHz

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. for testing TR2 can be a 12-0-12v 5 amp transformer. Initially do not connect the output of TR2 to the grid, first check whether the output is producing the required AC or not.....

      Delete
  15. Dear Mr. Swagatam,

    Warm Regards and Complements to you for your efforts and service to people like me.

    I've designed a complete system that involves use of some electronics for a revolutionary improvement in mileage of Gasoline powered engines. I've already designed the other components and presently require an inverter circuit that takes in 12 - 15 Volts and gives out 220 - 250 Volts out (50/60Hz). The load is around 100 Watts but to be on the safer side I need 150 Watts. On top of this, the circuit has to be small in size. This design seems to be very right for the purpose but I'm not an "Electroincs" person hence I need your help regarding this. Can you provide me with the Circuit Diagram, PCB Layout & Component List (Part Nos.). I've learned to etch the PCB using Ferric Cloride.

    Thanking you in anticipation and looking forward to your response.

    Regards.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Unknown,

      The above circuit is in its most crude form so I won't recommend this circuit to you, moreover optimizing the ferrite transformer winding would be difficult for any newcomer.

      You can go for any iron core type transformer inverter, it may be a little bulky but will be a lot easier to build and will provide with 100% results.

      The easiest one in this blog can be witnessed here:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/09/mini-50-watt-mosfet-inverter-circuit.html

      Though the title confirms a 50 watt output, it can be suitably upgraded to 150 wats by moifying the transformer and the battery.

      Regards, and Best wishes for the project

      Delete
    2. Thank you so much Mr. Swagatam!

      You just kick-started my stalled project. I'll look to the diagram you've mentioned and would try making it at earliest possible. All other components are working fine and I was using a 600 VA UPS instead of inverter circuit. As I've told you that I'm not an electronics person hence I needed somebody who is an expert and in my humble opinion - you are one!

      I'd request you to pass on the exact details of the desired transformer.

      I'll soon be getting in touch with you (if you don't mind - personally!)

      Thanks again for your good wishes.

      Regards

      Delete
    3. Thank you unknown!

      You may use an ordinary 9-0-9v/15amp secondary, 220V primary, step down transformer for the application, kindly note that the suggested circuit is a square wave design so you shouldn't operate anything sophisticated at its output.

      Regards.

      Delete
  16. Thank you so much Mr. Swagatam,

    I'm assembling the inverter today though I've to source the components from a distance of 40 kms because I live in a remote area. And actually my requirement is square wave only. When I used a normal UPS with modified sine wave output, the results weren't as expected but when I used a "Desi" inverter with square wave, the results were good. Actually there's very little sophisticated electronics involved after the step up. this square wave output goes to High Tension Ignition coil (1:100).

    And I must share the results of my initial tests with you because you just solved one of my problems. With this system on, the test bike (100 cc) is giving me more than 160 kmpl without any apparent loss in power or any sign of engine wear & tear! I'm still improving on the design to go even farther!!

    Thank you so much once again for helping me "Miniaturizing" the electronic part of my system.

    Regards

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Gosh!!, now I understood what you are trying to make.

      You are perhaps trying to make an electronic ignition system which would operate independently, without using the alternator voltage...right?

      I had made this circuit some 7 years ago while designing a button start ignition system for 3-whelers, the ignition system fired wonderfully but the mission failed because the operation required sucking-in of petrol in the ignition chamber, which involved mechanical operations....with no help around I had to drop the idea.

      Since your load is just an ignition coil, a simple 9-0-9/ 1amp transformer would do the job...no need of using a 15 amp transformer as suggested by me in the earlier comment.....I hope you are involving a CDI unit also for enhancing the results??

      Regards.

      Delete
  17. YOU ARE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT there Mr. Swagatam...! You're a veteran in this...
    My system is made up of what you guessed correctly plus a replacement for carburettor. And I've already tested it... Its working good. All I wanted was to make a smaller circuit that can be fitted onto bikes. As far as cars are concerned, the size of the circuit can be ignored. The make/brake operation is being handled by the CDI unit, ignition coil is doing its own work plus I add a pulse of high voltage to it. The spark is wonderful, jumps a gap of 5mm and its size is around 15 mm in diameter. The spark is so strong that it burns even a very weak mixture of air and fuel (I've achieved 50:1 ratio and I'm planning to increase it to around 80:1)
    I'll keep you posted about it. After all, you're my partner in development now... :-D.

    Regards.

    P. S.: My test bike (a CD 100 Deluxe) is running this system and is giving me between 160 and 210 kilometers per litre depending on driving dynamics!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks very much unknown,

      Do keep us updated with your proceedings, if possible with pictures.

      Regards

      Delete
    2. Dear Mr. Swagatam, Please let me know about the wattage of Resistors in the given circuit... Also, When I try to simulate your circuit in Circuit Wizard, the output is very choppy. CW doesn't have SK1058 in its library so which else can I choose to get the simulation right?

      Delete
    3. Hi unknown,

      You may use IRF540N in place of k1058 or any similar N mosfet

      or you can try this circuit which will be much easier and appropriate for your application:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-make-simplest-inverter-circuit.html

      Delete
  18. Hi
    Mr: Swagatam How are you Hope you Fit and Fine There
    my dear can you tell us the which mosfet p channel available to 400/500 voltage
    N channel is available to high voltage but P channel ???????Kindly reply
    Thanks bye
    malik3pk@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Malik,

      You may check out this mosfet:

      http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/FQ/FQP4P40.pdf

      Delete
  19. plz help me for ferrite core transformer winding pri. and sec. turns....
    plz swagatam

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello star,

      Presently I do not have the data, I'll try to get the info and update it soon....

      Delete
  20. hello everyone !
    i m trying to make a 200W single phase modified sine inverter. but i have to use boost in order to achieve so! (its required :)) ...
    what i m trying to do is to boost a 12v dc battery to 315v dc, then feed that 315vdc after removing the ripples to an inverter circuit.

    i need guidance of u all ... in lue of power ratings, power compensation, specifically inductances and any other advice u guys might find useful.
    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  21. DEAR SWAGATAM,
    WHAT IF WE USE A SOURCE AS SOLAR PANNELS INSTEAD OF BATTERIES

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Gopal,

      it will still work. any DC source with appropriate ratings will work.

      Delete
  22. Hi Swagatam,

    I am working on a design project to develop a circuit that converts 250V DC to AC voltage. The circuit has to meet the following requirements,

    - Input voltage and current = 250V DC and 20A
    - Output voltage and current = Pure sine wave AC (250V minus voltage drop) and 20A
    - Maintain pure sine wave output like utility power over the entire load range (0 to 20A) for all types of load.
    - Operate continuously
    - Minimize power loss between input and output
    - Minimize waste heat
    - Smallest possible size

    Please I need your help in drawing the circuit diagram to meet these requirements above, also please give me a list of the components required for this circuit. I will very much appreciate all your help in this matter. Thank you very much for your time and help.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Koffi,

      I'll try to design it soon, and let you know and it's posted.

      Delete
  23. Hi Swagatam how do i design my ferritr transformer. imean the formular or method

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Benson, The formulas could be difficult to understand and impractical for a newcomer, that's why i have not yet included them in my blog.

      Delete
  24. Hi Mr Swagatam, how can i do for obtain only 120 VAC from your circuit, i've seen that its give 220 VAC output voltage, thanks for your answers.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Frenando, the above circuits are not confirmed and could possess design flaws, so presently I won't recommend it.

      Delete
    2. hi mr.swagatam sir,
      please give me its details for transformer winding

      Delete
    3. Hi Rakesh, presently I do not have it, I'll try to to research and get it soon.

      Delete
  25. Swagatam..... Av this circuit bin implemented buy you u or by anyone yet. I really like d topology. Great work. Thankz

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Toni, no it has not been tested yet but the design looks quite straightforward and could be easily implemented with a few minor tweaks.

      Delete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.